Marketing is essential when people are engaged into buying and selling products or services. We see marketing everyday and even consider it as a part of our lives. It has indeed become one of the widest fields and one of the most famous authors who further explained and studied Marketing is Philip Kotler. Through the years, Marketing has moved and evolved from different focuses but still stays strong. One of the main problems Marketing encountered was people’s confusion whether it belongs to the business or non-business area. In order for us to understand more on Marketing, we must first go to its different concepts.
One of which is Marketing’s three stages of consciousness. Consciousness One’s core concept in understanding Marketing is “Market Transactions”. It takes place when a certain transaction of a products or services is made and transferred from one party to another in return to a payment or the like. Consciousness two on the other hand contrasts consciousness one because it doesn’t consider payment as an important factor in defining Marketing because it states that a product is something that is valuable to someone, whether a charge is made or not. A perfect example for this is a church. Its customers are actually its followers: it doesn’t require them to pay but the people values it so they give donations and charity works. Therefore, a transaction has already been made without purchasing. Whenever there are people or customers, there is Marketing and therefore, Marketing can be attained even without purchasing. Consciousness three is more realistic than the other two consciousnesses. It requires organizations to have a certain connection not only with its customers but also with its external environment. Consciousness three’s core concept is transactions and therefore; marketing can be applied to any two parties that seek to exchange values from one another.
The second concept to be considered is the four (4) axioms of Marketing. Axiom one states that Marketing involves two or more social units, each consisting of one or more human actors. This means that Marketing is only applicable to human beings and not allowed when a particular person is engaged in an activity that includes only himself. Axiom two implies that at least one of social units is seeking a specific response from one or more other units concerning some social object. Axiom two implies that Marketing is more on the “selling” side rather than the “buying”. The person who is getting the products so that he can sell it is the one engaged in Marketing rather than the buyer who just buys the said product. But if in instance, the buyer bargains with the seller, he too is engaged in Marketing. The third axiom on the other hand, states that the market’s response probability is not fixed. It is the probability that market will be able to produce the desired response. It is considered when the marketing activity is free with the desired response. If it can’t respond to the social object, then there is no market. The last one is Axiom four. It states that Marketing is the attempt to produce the desired response by creating and offering values to the market. It means that because the market’s response is voluntary, you have to make the product valuable to your customers.
Marketing typologies can be constructed through Target Market Typology, where the goal is to determine, classify, and distinguish different public where one can find a good opportunity to direct his market activity. The scenario of this typology is to use the resources of its supporters into producing the product which goes directly to consumers or through agents. Product Typology on the other hand, is another basis of the typology of marketing where the product is no longer restricted to commercial goods and services. Its goal is to determine which product will fit the different publics. In the Marketer Typology, the seller considers that there is business and non-business organizations in a market and he has to consider the different types of those organizations according to its formal character.
Unlike other authors, Philip Kotler did not only defined marketing, he also added further explanations and made some contrasts of each theories in order to fully comprehend the core concept of Marketing and apply it in our daily life. In a student’s perspective, Kotler’s concept in Marketing actually helps in differentiating and understanding more the different theories in marketing as well as seeing what marketing is and picturing out how it is being used in the business world. Marketing can be both in business and non-business organizations for as long as there are interactions and exchanges of value between the two parties commonly between seller and buyer of goods and/or services. As people dwell into transactions in everyday life, we will realize that Marketing will always be applied and therefore it is inevitably essential for us to comprehend how it works.